They focus on the prevalence, related factors, associated risks and opportunities, and coping strategies for selected online activities. However, most research has mainly been published in descriptive research reports e. Research findings indicate that preschool children Marsh et al. Children aged 8 and older progressively expand the range of their activities in comparison with younger children e.
We defined parental mediation above as parental management of the relation between children and media in line with Livingstone and Helsper The active co-use category suggests that sharing the media is more active when the child uses the internet than when they watch television. It refers to behavior in which the parent is sitting near the child and talks to them about the online activity.
Co-use also involves restrictions associated with the communication of personal information online, shopping online, completing forms, etc. These restrictions are included in this category because parents can explain and enforce such restrictions during co-use. Diverse restriction strategies were divided into two different categories: technical restrictions and interaction restrictions.
The interaction-restriction category is associated with the prohibition of contacting others e.
Mediating Cultures Parenting in Intercultural Contexts by Gonzalez & Alberto
T echnical restrictions represent the installation or use of software that, for example, filter content and prevent access to some websites. The previous research on the styles of parental mediation was mostly carried out among families with children 9 years old and older i. Research on families with younger children is more scarce. Research on the mediation of younger children was carried out by Nikken and Jansz with Dutch parents of children aged 2 to The authors revealed the following five mediation styles: co-use e.
The authors identify supervision as a new mediation in the context of online behavior. They hypothesized that this kind of mediation applies more to older children. Zaman et al. They identified the following parental mediation practices: restrictive mediation, participatory learning involving co-use plus active mediation, and distant mediation. Restrictions of activities in terms of time, device, content, location, and purchase were found. Two types of co-use emerged in the data when parents behaved as helpers or as buddies.
Parents behaving as helpers guided their children when they learned how to use the medium or when problems with usage arose. Parents as buddies shared some media activities with their children purely for enjoyment. Active mediation included discussions between the parents and their children. Situational factors were related to weather, family composition and schedule, social contact, the disposition of media devices, and the architecture of the house. Internal factors were related to attitudes, digital media, health, and parenting. The authors describe how parental mediation is changing in relation to the contextual demands that evolve over time such as the popularity of devices or vary between locations such as less strict rules in the car.
In the present article, we follow this line of research on the situational factors of parental mediation. We aim to develop an understanding of specific parental mediations in relation to online opportunities and risks in the family context. Recent research has discovered several factors that are associated with the parental mediation of technology use. These studies focused on factors associated with parental mediation and they were based on investigations within families with children aged 9 and older.
The other relevant factors for families with younger children were investigated even less. Finally, the authors revealed that mediation strategies varied among families with infants, toddlers, preschoolers, and early-childhood children. As we explained above, our research assumed that the child is an active subject in the family system and that the child plays an active role in the process of technology mediation.
The role of young children in the mediation process has not been sufficiently investigated in previous research and we aim to fill this gap with our research. In our investigation, we focus on the mediation strategies that parents use to shape the online experiences of year-old children and we investigate the parental mediation of specific online opportunities and online risks for young children. We sought also to understand the situational factors that play a role in the parental mediation of technology risks and opportunities, and the active role of the child from the perspective of the parents.
The parents' ages ranged from 35 to For detailed information see Table 1. Seven families had two parents; three had a single parent a mother ; and one family shared their household with a grandfather. All of the parents were Czech.
Their education ranged from vocational to university level. The income of the families also varied from under half of the national median to above the national median. Seven families owned at least one tablet. The children had access to these devices. Some children had possession of their own devices specified in Table 1. Within this research, we analyzed data from interviews with parents. The present research is based on a more detailed re-analysis of the data collected in the Czech Republic only.
Interviews took place in the home of the participants. The semi-structured interviews with parents were between 35 and 85 minutes long 60 minutes on average. The interviewers used an interview guide to follow questions and observation protocol as developed by the Joint Research Centre for detailed information, see Chaudron et al. To find participants, six primary schools in the South Moravia region were sent a request to forward invitations for participation to students of second-year classes, which were then delivered to parents.
Approximately invitations were distributed in this way.
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Thirty families registered to participate in the study and interviews were subsequently held in 10 of them. All of the participants were informed about the purpose of the research and they provided written informed consent. The study received ethical approval from the European Commission. For more information, see the general report from all seven countries Chaudron et al.
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Table 1. Detailed Description of Participants. All interviews were transcribed verbatim. For the purpose of this study, only interviews with parents were analyzed. The first and second authors conducted the analyses. The six steps of the Thematic Analysis method were used:. To increase the validity of the findings and to strengthen the inter-coder triangulation of results, an audit was completed. The third author validated the themes developed by the first and second authors.
The parents of year-old children face the necessity of using mediation strategies for technology usage. We describe three themes see Table 2 related to the mediation strategies of parents: 1 Mediation strategies of technology usage; 2 Time and place management of mediation strategies; and 3 Child as a co-creator of mediation strategies. Table 2. Families in our sample reported mediation strategies for general technology usage and mediation strategies in the context of specific technology opportunities and risks. Two subthemes were identified: A the mediation of technology opportunities, and B the future mediation of technology risks.
Mediation strategies for general technology usage are related more to general rules and beliefs than to specific risks and opportunities. As one family C5 reveals:. Mother: …where is some advertisement and she [daughter, 7 years old] will click on it and there will be a porn site or something. Father: But now it is ok, we are waiting [for what will be in the future].
The majority of the families do not have strict rules for technology usage. But it is not really like — well now you have an hour. Technology usage in such families was perceived to be one of many activities. Therefore, they did not have any special rules. Nevertheless, general rules were applied. For example, free-time activities including technologies were allowed after chores and schoolwork were completed, and children had to request permission to use technologies. Some of the families had strict rules. These rules related to the time spent with technologies and to the more accurate control of technology usage.
Some parents set up rules specifically for technologies that were perceived as something special. For example, in some families technology usage was a form of reward or punishment:. Mediation strategies for specific opportunities and risks were also identified. The next two subthemes describe the content of the parental mediation — the mediation of opportunities and the mediation of risks as perceived by the parents. That means that the parents themselves linked some of their specific mediation activities to the opportunities, such as digital skills or possible risks.